The International Federation of Transport Executives (FICT)
President: Philippe QUEUNE
Address:  s/c CFE-CGC TRANSPORT,
59 rue du rocher, 75008 – Paris, France

Study conducted by Sadatte ADAM


Context of the study………………………………………………………… ……….2Objectives of the study…………………………………………………………………3

  • Methodology……………………………………………………………………………3
  1. Presentation of the plan………………………………………………… ……………3
  2. Goods transport by road……………………………… ………..4
    • The main applicable regulations……………… ………4
    • The main vehicles used……………………… ……………5
    • Calculating the price of a transport operation: the cost

price…………………………………………………        ……………5

  1. Proposing a new pricing system…………………… …..6
    • Removing the labour costs…………… …………….6
    • Integrating direct greenhouse gas emissions into the price

calculations to replace the labour costs………                       ……6

  • Pricing greenhouse gas emissions………… ………………………6
    • Scope of the emissions…………………………………6
    • Quantification of the emissions………………………..7
  1. Simulating the cost price calculations for a goods transport operation

by road…………………………………………………                             ……..8

  • Application of a three-part formula………………… ………………8
  • Introduction of an emissions cost to replace the

labour costs………………………………………           …………..8

  • Conclusion………………………………… ……… ……………….9

Bibliography……………………………………………………… …………………..11


Labour costs: the total cost paid by companies to remunerate the work production factor. This is the equivalent of the socialised salary (direct and indirect salary (social contributions by the employee and employer)).
Cost price: this corresponds to the total costs (direct and indirect) incurred by a company for the production and distribution of a good or service.
Driver cost: this corresponds to the salary of a driver, the costs of the driver, and the travel costs (daily average).
Daily cost: this corresponds to the vehicular and structural costs relating to one day’s operation
Per-kilometre cost: this consists of the cost of fuel, tyres, maintenance-repair, tolls.
Emissions factor: ratio giving the greenhouse gas emissions relating to an object, a material, or a service.
The Carbon Base® from the Environmental and Energy Control Agency (ADEME) lists a large number of emissions factors.

Greenhouse gases: gas compounds present naturally in the atmosphere or generated by human activity. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the primary greenhouse gas generated by human activity. We can measure the effect of other greenhouse gases according to their impact on global warming, using their equivalent in CO₂.

 Abbreviations and acronyms
GG: Greenhouse gases
EU: European Union

  1. Context of the study
    Goods transport by road is a major part of the European Community’s economy. It consists of moving products from one place to another, thereby promoting trade and exchange.
    Since the inauguration of the single market1 in Europe, the service office has increased, leading to intensified competition regarding the prices of services.
    ervice providers have begun to conduct their activities on a more permanent basis in geographical areas other than those in which they were originally established, despite the legal, social, and administrative differences. This is one of the primary causes of social dumping1, which is affecting the goods transport sector.

Labour costs are much lower in Eastern Europe, so companies use drivers in this region to drive exclusively in Western Europe in order to reduce their costs and improve their profitability. These unfair practices create competitive distortions within the market.
In order to provide a solution which would reduce these distortions, we have studied the implementation of a new pricing system for goods transport operations by road to ensure fair competition and meet the EU’s climate objectives as set in the European Green Pact3.

1 The single market or internal market is one of the pillars of the European Union. This collectively refers to the free movement of people, goods, services, and capital within the EU, which form the “four freedoms” recognised by the Treaty of Rome.

2 Social dumping refers to any practice which consists, for a State or a company, of violating or circumventing currently applicable labour laws in order to obtain an economic advantage, in particular in terms of competitiveness.

3 The European Green Pact is a set of measures which aims to put the EU on the path to environmental transition, with the end goal being climate neutrality by 2050. 

  1. Objectives of the study

Our study has the following objectives:
To offer a solution which will reduce competitive distortion,
To reduce greenhouse gas emissions and thereby help fight climate change.

  • Methodology
    First, documentary research was completed to bring together all of the data which would be useful and relevant to our study. Discussions and analyses were then conducted to determine the best path to take. Several ideas were put forward, and deductive reasoning was used to select the best. Lastly, a number of scenarios were set out in order to support our reasoning and deduce the strategic actions to be implemented.
  1. Presentation of the plan
    This report consists of three parts:
    – The first part briefly presents goods transport by road, using bibliographical research and studies of current regulations,
    – The second part presents our solution to reduce the competitive distortions while reducing greenhouse gas emissions,
    – The last part presents simulations of the cost price calculations for a goods transport operation, in order to coherently describe how we will get from the situation today to the end goal. 
  1. Goods transport by road
    The main applicable regulations
    In the goods transport by road sector, the primary regulation concerning our issue are:
    European social regulations4 which govern drivers throughout Europe. Vehicles weighing more than 3.5 tonnes or with more than 9 seats are subject to this. It defines the rest and drive times. It aims to protect drivers from excessive driving time, in order to avoid road accidents due to fatigue, and to balance the competitive conditions between companies.
    The mobility package5, a new regulation from the European Commission governing road transport. Adopted in 2020, it aims to improve working conditions for drivers and guarantee fair competition within the single European market.

4 European labour regulations are included in (EU) regulation n° 561/2006 from the European Parliament and Council on the 15 March 2006 relating to the harmonisation of certain terms of labour legislation regarding road transport, modifying regulations (EEC) n° 3821/85 and (EC)  n° 2135/98 from the Council and abrogating (CEE) regulation n° 3820/85 from the Council and Directive 2002/15/CE of the European Council and Parliament on the 11 March 2002. 

5 The regulations in the mobility package:

* (EU) regulation 2020/1054 from the European Parliament and Council on the 15 July 2020 modifying (EC) regulation n° 561/2006 concerning the minimum requirements relating to the maximum daily and weekly driving times, and the minimum daily and weekly break and rest times, and (EU) regulation n° 165/2014 concerning localisation using tachygraphs.

* (EU) regulation 2020/1055 from the European Parliament and Council on the 15 July 2020 modifying the regulations (EC) n° 1071/2009, (EC) n° 1072/2009 and (EU) n° 1024/2012 in view of adapting them to changes in the goods transport by road sector

* (EU) regulation 2020/1056 from the European Parliament and Council on the 15 July 2020 concerning the electronic information relating to goods transport

* (EU) 2020/1057 from the European Parliament and Council on the 15 July 2020 establishing the specific rules concerning directive 96/71/CE and directive 2014/67/UE for the detachment of drivers in the road transport sector, and modifying the directive 2006/22/CE regarding the requirements in terms of control and (EU) regulation n° 1024/2012 

  • The main vehicles used

We can distinguish:

  • According to the profile, 2 types of road vehicles dedicated to goods transport: HGV or industrial vehicles (goods transport vehicles whose total authorised full weight is > 3.5 tonnes) and light utility vehicles (transport vehicles whose total authorised full weight is ≤5 tonnes).
  • 4 types of rolling stock: trucks or carriers, road tractors, trailers, and half-trailers.

The production costs per kilometre, the daily cost, and the cost for one hour’s service time will differ according to the type of vehicle.

  • Calculating the price of a transport operation: the cost price


CK, the cost per kilometre,

CD, the cost per driver,

Cd, the cost per day:

The cost price = CK + CD + Cd

CK = Cost per kilometre x number of kilometres travelled

CD = Cost per hour6 x number of hours’ service

Cd = Cost per day x number of days’ use of the vehicle


6 The cost per hour corresponds to the hourly labour cost. 

  1. Proposing a new pricing system 
  • Removing the labour costs

Despite the existing regulatory framework in place in the goods transport by road sector, there remain competitive distortions and social dumping issues. The best solution to these problems is to analyse the actual equity of the competition conditions. We have identified the hourly cost of labour costs as being the main source of the problem. Essentially, the existing cost disparities between Eastern and Western Europe incite companies to break or circumvent labour laws in order to obtain economic advantages. A new approach, which would no longer take labour costs into consideration when calculating the price of goods transported by road, should allow us to create fairer competition conditions within the European market. Additionally, it would ensure that the rules are correctly applied.

  • Integrating direct greenhouse gas emissions into the price calculations, replacing the labour costs

Fossil fuels are the largest source of greenhouse gas (GG) emissions generated by humans. In order to encourage service providers to reduce their fuel consumption, and thereby emit fewer greenhouse gases, it would be useful to implement a direct emissions tax to replace the labour costs. This would promote the use of short circuits and encourage the adoption of new, cleaner and more fuel-efficient technologies.

  • Pricing greenhouse gas emissions
  • Scope of emissions: the emissions considered are the GG directly generated by goods transport by road.
  • Quantifying the emissions: Calculation method 7
    QGES, the quantity of GG emissions:
    QGES = Quantity of energy x Corresponding emissions factor
    QGES in equivalent kilograms of carbon dioxide (kgCO2e)
    Quantity of energy = number of litres of fuel used during the journey
    The emission factors in kgCO2e/litre

It is useful to consider the weight transported, given that an empty vehicle will not consume as much as a full one.
This givesQGES[] , the quantity of GG generated per tonne kilometre :
QGES[] = ( QGES ÷ Number of kilometres travelled) ÷ Total mass of the goods or gross weight

  • QGES[] in kgCO2e/

A vehicle consumes 30 litres of B7 road diesel over a distance of 100 kilometres, with 6 tonnes of goods.

QGES = 30 litres x 3,10 kgCO2e/litre = 93 kgCO2e

With 3.10 kgCO2e/litre corresponding to the emissions factor of B7 road diesel.

QGES[] = (93 kgCO2e ÷ 100 kilometres) ÷ 6 tonnes = 0.155 kgCO2e/ or 155 gCO2e/


7 The calculation method used complies with the methods guide for GG information concerning transport services.. This guide is available at: under the name “GG information for transport services – Methods guide (PDF – 16.35 Mo)”

  1. Simulating the cost price calculations for a goods transport operation by road
  • Application of a three-part formula 

Scenario 1

A service provider (A) has been tasked with transporting 6 tonnes of goods over a distance of 700 kilometres. 

The operation, including loading the goods, transporting them and unloading them, lasted 8 hours. The vehicle consumed 30 litres of B7 road diesel when it use. The driver is paid € 4 per hour of work.

The daily cost is € 110, and the cost of the vehicle per kilometre is € 1.4. 

  • The cost per kilometre CK = € 1.4 x 700 km = € 980
  • The driver cost CD = € 4 x 8 hours = € 32
  • The daily cost Cd = € 110 x 1 day = € 110 

The cost price = 980 + 32 + 110 = 1122 

Scenario 2

A service provider (B) is tasked with delivering 6 tonnes of goods.
The hourly rate for the driver is € 14, and the other data are identical to those in scenario 1. 

The cost price = 980 + (14 x 8) + 110 = € 1202 

  • Introduction of an emissions cost to replace the labour costs 

If we take scenario 1, 

QGES = 30 litres x 3,10 kgCO2e/litre = 93 kgCO2e

With 3.10 kgCO2e/litre corresponding to the emissions factor of B7 road diesel.

QGES[]  = 0,155 kgCO2e/


Suppose that the price of 1 kg of CO2e/ is € 200 ,

The price equivalent of 0.155 kgCO2e/ x € 200 = € 31 

The cost price = 980 + 31 + 110 = € 1 

  • Conclusion

Scenarios 1 and 2 from section 3.1 allow us to compare two cost prices over one day. Logically, the service in which the labour cost is low is more profitable for the company requesting the service. In section 3.2, we removed this cost and replaced it with a direct cost concerning GG emissions. A hypothesis was established by setting a price per kg of CO2 emitted per tonne/kilometre, which then allows us to determine the price of the emissions during the operation. This solution would eliminate the competitive distortions between companies due to labour costs and would simultaneously be an effective barrier to social dumping. In order to set this price, a regulatory framework would be required.

It is therefore up to the EU’s political decision-makers to agree on the introduction of a standardised price according to a standard which would also be jointly agreed upon. This would be a carbon tax on direct CO2 emissions during goods transport by road.

Transport is one of the leading greenhouse gas emitting sectors within the European Union. While economic instruments such as carbon taxes on the price of fuel are already in place, it would be useful to introduce this new tax. It would have a more direct impact on behaviour. 

A tracking, declaration, and verification process must also be developed within the regulatory framework in order to properly account for the direct emissions. Essentially, the application of this new tax would require institutions to implement effective processes to ensure that the obligations stemming from this tax are met.

European Conference of Transport Ministries (CEMT), efficient transport taxation, OECD, 2001
DEFOSSEZ A., Social dumping in the European Union, Brussels, Larcier, 2014

IZEN I., “Social dumping in European goods transport by road”, Terra Nova, 25 June 2015, available at:

LEROY-DUTILLEUL I., SAUVANT A., SIDKY R., Infractions and competitive distortion in goods and personnel transport by road, available at:

Ministry of environmental and socially responsible transport, GG information on transport services – Methods guide, September 2018, available at:

PALLI B., “Social and safety requirements for goods transport by road: is it time to standardise working and rest time?” available at:

Partnership for market preparation (PMR) 2017. Guide to carbon

taxation: A manual for political decision-makers. World Bank, Washington D.C. Licence: Creative Commons Attribution CC BY 3.0 IGO, available at:

SCHROTEN A. et al., 2022, Research for TRAN Committee – Pricing instruments on transport emissions, European Parliament, Policy Department for Structural and Cohesion Policies, Brussels, available at:


Appendix: 2022 emissions factor reference document

Document available at:

Référentiel des facteurs d’émissions – 2022.pdf (

Document last updated on the 01/06/2022 

2022 emissions factor reference document 

The emissions factors used in the Objective CO2 calculation tool are in CO2 equivalent (CO2e). They include other greenhouse gases than CO2 such as methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFC), which are the mist common in the transport sector. They include, without distinction, emissions generated during the pre-transport phases (for example: extraction, refining, and distribution for oil; growing and transformation into fuel for agri-fuels), and during the operational phases (combustion) for the energy in question.

These emissions factors are all taken from the Carbon Base® and have “generic valid” status: these are the factors to be used by default. They represent a consumer mix which does not depend on the product brand.

Energy Value Unit Source Description
Bioethanol – ED95 0.85 kgCO2e/litre Carbon base® Combustion + pre-transport emissions factor
BioGNC – Compressed biomethane – For road vehicles – Medium mix 0.61 kgCO2e/kg Carbon base® Combustion + pre-transport emissions factor
Electricity – 2020 – medium mix – consumption 0.06 kgCO2e/kWH Carbon base® Combustion + pre-transport emissions factor
Petrol – Unleaded superfuel (95, 95E10, 98) 2.70 kgCO2e/litre Carbon base® Combustion + pre-transport emissions factor
Diesel – B20 2.63 kgCO2e/litre Carbon base® Combustion + pre-transport emissions factor
Non-road diesel 3.16 kgCO2e/litre Carbon base® Combustion + pre-transport emissions factor
Road diesel – B100 1.21 kgCO2e/litre Carbon base® Combustion + pre-transport emissions factor
Road diesel – B7 3.10 kgCO2e/litre Carbon base® Combustion + pre-transport emissions factor
CNG – Compressed Natural Gas for road vehicles 2.96 kgCO2e/kg Carbon base® Combustion + pre-transport emissions factor
LNG – Liquefied Natural Gas – (includes road, maritime and river) 3.28 kgCO2e/kg Carbon base® Combustion + pre-transport emissions factor
HFO – heavy fuel oil – ISO 8217 classes RME to RMK (tonne) 3,620.00 kgCO2e/tonne Carbon base® Combustion + pre-transport emissions factor
HVO – Hydro-treated vegetable oil made from used food oil – without any change in land use 0.54 kgCO2e/litre Carbon base® Combustion + pre-transport emissions factor
Kerosene – jet A1 or A (kg) 3.83 kgCO2e/kg Carbon base® Combustion + pre-transport emissions factor
Kerosene – jet A1 or A (litre) 3.83 kgCO2e/litre Carbon base® Combustion + pre-transport emissions factor

Marseille, Nice et Toulon vont électrifier leurs quais pour alimenter les navires en escale

FRANCE. La Région Sud PACA dévoile un plan « escales, zéro fumée » de 30 M€ qui doit réduire drastiquement les rejets de fumées toxiques des navires de croisière et des ferries

Marseille, Nice and Toulon will electrify their docks to supply ships calling

LA FRANCE. The South PACA Region unveils a € 30 million « Stopovers, Zero Smoke » plan that must drastically reduce the toxic fumes discharged by cruise ships and ferries

Aigle Azur suspend ses vols…

FRANCE. En redressement judiciaire, Aigle Azur annonce aujourd’hui 5 septembre l’annulation immédiate de ses vols à destination du Brésil, du Portugal et du Mali. D’autres pays comme le Liban seraient également concernés. D’autres parts, la compagnie n’enregistre plus de réservation pour des vols postérieurs au 10 septembre.
Alors que son PDG a démissionné, Aigle Azur n’a pratiquement plus de trésorerie.

par Gérard Tur – EcOnostrum

Aigle Azur suspends flights …

LA FRANCE. In legal recovery, Aigle Azur announces today September 5 the immediate cancellation of flights to Brazil, Portugal and Mali. Other countries like Lebanon would also be concerned. On the other hand, the company does not register any booking for flights after September 10th.

While his CEO has resigned, Aigle Azur has virtually no cash.

by Gérard Tur – EcOnostrum

SNCF: une pollution aux particules fines dans les couloirs du RER E

Le 06 septembre 2019 par Victor Miget – Journal de l’Environnement

Plusieurs syndicats de la SNCF dénoncent une pollution aux particules fines provoquées, en début de semaine, par un chantier sur la ligne E du RER à Paris. La direction assure que le danger a été écarté.

SNCF : Après l’épisode des trains de fret farcis d’amiante, épisode 2 : les particules fines dans les couloirs du RER. Des syndicats maison ont dénoncé une pollution aux particules fines provoquée par un chantier sur la ligne E du RER parisien.

SNCF: Fine particle pollution in the corridors of the RER E

September 06, 2019 by Victor Miget – Journal de l’environnement

Several unions of the SNCF denounce a pollution with fine particles provoked, at the beginning of the week, by a building site on the line E of the RER in Paris. Management assures that the danger has been averted.

SNCF: After the episode of freight trains stuffed with asbestos, episode 2: fine particles in the corridors of the RER. House unions denounced pollution to fine particles caused by a construction site on line E of the Paris RER.

Aigle Azur en redressement judiciaire

Aigle Azur a réuni aujourd’hui 2 septembre un comité d’entreprise extraordinaire pour informer le personnel de son placement en redressement judiciaire.
Il s’agit du troisième épisode de la grave crise que traverse la seconde compagnie aérienne française. Le 26 août, un actionnaire minoritaire, Gérard Houa (19% du capital), se proclamait Président d’Aigle Azur en remplacement de Frantz Yvelin. Il nommait dans la foulée Philippe Bohn directeur général.

Aigle Azur in receivership

Aigle Azur met today, September 2, an extraordinary works council to inform the staff of its placement in receivership.

This is the third episode of the serious crisis that the second French airline is going through. On August 26, a minority shareholder, Gérard Houa (19% stake), proclaimed himself Chairman of Aigle Azur to replace Frantz Yvelin. He named in the wake Philippe Bohn General Manager.

Aigle Azur a un urgent besoin d’argent frais. Photo Aigle Azur

Une longue grève se dessine chez Ryanair Espagne

ESPAGNE. Les pilotes de Ryanair en Espagne rejoignent le personnel embarqué dans ce qui s’annonce comme un conflit social dur. Alors que mi-août, les stewards et hôtesses de l’air opérant en Espagne annonçaient dix jours de grève pour les 1, 2, 6, 8, 13, 15, 20, 22, 27 et 28 septembre, les pilotes viennent à leur tour de déposer un préavis pour un arrêt de travail de cinq jours, les 19, 20, 22, 27 et 29 septembre. La compagnie emploie 900 pilotes en Espagne.

A long strike is taking shape at Ryanair Spain

SPAIN. The Ryanair pilots in Spain join the embarked staff in what promises to be a hard social conflict. While mid-August, stewards and flight attendants operating in Spain announced ten days of strike for the 1, 2, 6, 8, 13, 15, 20, 22, 27 and 28 September, pilots come to their to give notice of a five-day work stoppage on September 19, 20, 22, 27 and 29. The company employs 900 pilots in Spain.

Comment renforcer la part modale du rail

Le 26 août 2019 par Victor Miget  –  Journal de l’environnement

Fin juillet, les entreprises européennes de fret ferroviaire, réunies au sein de la coalition Rail Freight Forward (RFF), ont remis leur livre blanc aux parlementaires européens. Mis en œuvre, ce train de mesures pourrait porter la part modale du fret ferroviaire à 30% d’ici à 2030.

Organiser le report modal du fret en faveur du rail. C’est l’ambition du livre blanc déposé par la coalition d’entreprises ferroviaires Rail Freight Forward, qui compte 18 membres dont BLS Cargo, CD Cargo, CFL Cargo, CFL Multimodal, ou encore SNCF Logistics. Les acteurs du secteur comptent ainsi augmenter la part du report modal de 12% d’ici à 2030, afin d’atteindre les 30%. Ce dernier étant d’actuellement 18%.

How to strengthen the modal share of rail

August 26, 2019 by Victor Miget – Journal de l’environnement

At the end of July, European rail freight companies, united in the Rail Freight Forward (RFF) coalition, handed over their white paper to MEPs. Implemented, this package could raise the modal share of rail freight to 30% by 2030.

Organize the modal shift of freight to rail. This is the ambition of the white paper submitted by the Rail Freight Forward railway coalition, which has 18 members, including BLS Cargo, Cargo, CFL Cargo, CFL Multimodal, and SNCF Logistics. Industry players expect to increase the modal shift share by 12% by 2030 to reach 30%. The latter is currently 18%.

Selon les calculs de la RFF, le report modal de 30% à horizon 2030 permettrait de réduire les émissions de CO2 de 290 millions de tonnes en une décennie. According to RFF calculations, the modal shift of 30% by 2030 would reduce CO2 emissions by 290 million tonnes in a decade.
Les porte-conteneurs, véhicules préférés des espèces invasives, Container ships, favorite vehicles of invasive species

Trafic maritime: jusqu’à 20 fois plus d’espèces invasives d’ici à 2050

Le nombre d’invasions biologiques marines pourrait être multiplié par 20 d’ici la moitié du siècle, révèle une étude publiée lundi 18 mars dans Nature Sustainability. Pas tant en raison du changement climatique que du trafic maritime, dont le volume pourrait être multiplié par 12 dans le même temps.

Surnageant dans les eaux de ballast (désormais régulées par une convention internationale) ou accrochées aux coques des bateaux, les espèces invasives marines ont de beaux jours devant elles. Principal facteur, la forte hausse des échanges de marchandises par voie maritime, étroitement liés au développement économique des pays. En 2013, la Chine représentait ainsi 20,1% du débit mondial de conteneurs, contre seulement 1,4% en 1990, tandis que son PIB grimpait de 840%

par Romain Loury, Le Journal de l’environnement

Maritime traffic: up to 20 times more invasive species by 2050

The number of marine biological invasions could be multiplied by 20 by the middle of the century, reveals a study published Monday, March 18 in Nature Sustainability. Not so much because of climate change as maritime traffic, whose volume could be multiplied by 12 at the same time.

Supernatant in ballast water (now regulated by an international convention) or hitched to the hulls of boats, marine invasive species have good days in front of them. The main factor is the sharp rise in maritime merchandise trade, closely linked to the economic development of the countries. In 2013, China accounted for 20.1% of global container throughput, compared with only 1.4% in 1990, while its GDP grew by 840%

by Romain Loury, The Journal of the Environment

Le coût environnemental astronomique du transport aérien

Le coût environnemental de 33 aéroports européens est de 33 milliards d’euros par an, indique une étude présentée par la commissaire européenne à la mobilité et aux transports, Violeta Bulc. Des chiffres divulgués, ce week-end à Séoul, lors du sommet de l’IATA.

Extrait d’un article du journal de l’environnement / France


 The astronomical environmental cost of air transport

 The environmental cost of 33 European airports is 33 billion euros per year, says a study presented by the European Commissioner for Mobility and Transport, Violeta Bulc. Figures leaked this weekend in Seoul at the IATA summit.

Excerpt from an article in the journal of the environment / France

Des climato-sceptiques US contre la taxation de l’aviation européenne?  Parmi les actions déployées par les opposants aux projets de taxation du transport aérien en Europe, une pétition de consommateurs mécontents. Une initiative pilotée par une prétendue ONG consumériste américaine, proche de milliardaires climato-sceptiques.

Extrait d’un article du journal de l’environnement / France


US climate-skeptics against the taxation of European aviation?

Among the actions deployed by the opponents of the projects of taxation of the air transport in Europe, a petition of dissatisfied consumers. An initiative led by a so-called American consumer NGO, close to billionaires climate-skeptics.

Excerpt from an article in the journal of the environment / France


Deux premiers cargos à voile commandés, le projet fou se concrétise

Image de synthèse du premier cargo à voiles construit par Neoline et Neopolia.

Des voiles tirant d’imposants bateaux de marchandise. C’est le projet un peu fou défendu depuis plusieurs années par la start-up Neoline. Et il est en train de se concrétiser. La construction du premier navire, qui s’effectuerait partiellement à Saint-Nazaire, débutera fin 2019 pour une livraison espérée fin 2021.

Consommation d’énergie réduite d’au moins 80 %

Longs de 136 m, dotés chacun de deux mâts, ces navires atypiques pourraient transporter l’équivalent de 280 conteneurs ou de 500 voitures. Ils navigueraient principalement à grâce à la force du vent, « une énergie inépuisable, gratuite et 100 % renouvelable », souligne l’armateur Neoline. La motorisation servira uniquement aux équipements de bord et aux manœuvres portuaires. De quoi envisager une « économie de 80 à 90 % de la consommation et de l’empreinte carbone associée ».

The first two sailing ships ordered, the crazy project materializes

Synthetic image of the first sailing ship built by Neoline and Neopolia.

Sails pulling imposing merchandise boats. This is the crazy project defended for several years by the start-up Neoline. And it is coming to fruition. The construction of the first ship, which would be carried out partially in Saint-Nazaire, will start at the end of 2019 for a delivery expected at the end of 2021.

Reduced energy consumption by at least 80%

These 136 m long vessels, each with two masts, could carry the equivalent of 280 containers or 500 cars. They would sail mainly thanks to the strength of the wind, « an inexhaustible energy, free and 100% renewable, » says the owner Neoline. The engine will only be used for on-board equipment and port maneuvers. What to envisage an « economy of 80 to 90% of the consumption and the associated carbon footprint ».

Le Royaume-Unis veut des navires zéro émission en 2025
Le 16 juillet 2019 par Victor Miget  –  Journal de l’Environnement

Le gouvernement britannique a publié, en début de semaine, son «Clean Maritime Plan». Plan ambitieux qui vise à la neutralité carbone des navires qui seront commandés à partir de 2025.

En 2017, le transport maritime britannique a relargué environ 15 millions de tonnes de gaz à effet de serre : 4% des émissions nationales.

The United Kingdom wants zero emission vessels in 2025

July 16, 2019 by Victor Miget – Journal of the Environment

The British government published its « Clean Maritime Plan » earlier this week. Ambitious plan aimed at carbon neutrality of ships to be ordered from 2025.In 2017, British shipping released about 15 million tonnes of greenhouse gases: 4% of national emissions.

Ouverture à la concurrence du rail:

Télécharger la position de la France

The Opening to competition of the Railway Market in Europe:

download French argue

Port de Marseille Fos : l’électrification met le cap sur la Tunisie

Le 18 juillet 2019 par Victor Miget  –  Journal de l’Environnement.

La Région Sud et le port de Marseille Fos veulent développer l’approvisionnement en électricité des navires en escale pour réduire la pollution atmosphérique. Ce qui pourrait générer quelques travaux en … Tunisie.

Au total, le port de Marseille c’est 3.400 escales annuelles. 1.600 escales de ferrys corses, 450 ferrys internationaux (dont Maghreb), 500 escales croisières et 200 de réparations navales. Entre 021 et 2025, 800 navires desservant la Corse, 200 de ferrys internationaux, 200 paquebots et 200 navires à réparer devraient s’alimenter en électricité dans le port de Marseille.

Port of Marseille Fos: Electrification sets sail for Tunisia

July 18, 2019 by Victor Miget – Journal of the Environment

The South Region and the port of Marseille Fos want to develop the electricity supply of ships calling to reduce air pollution. Which could generate some works in … Tunisia.

In total, the port of Marseille is 3,400 annual stopovers. 1,600 stops of Corsican ferries, 450 international ferries (including Maghreb), 500 cruises and 200 naval repairs. Between 021 and 2025, 800 ships serving Corsica, 200 international ferries, 200 ships and 200 ships to repair should draw electricity in the port of Marseille.

L’OMI accélère pour réduire la vitesse des navires

107 dirigeants de compagnies de transport maritime se sont prononcés en faveur de la limitation de la vitesse des navires pour réduire les émissions de gaz à effet de serre. 

Un épisode important s’est joué dans le long feuilleton sur la réduction des émissions de CO2 des transports maritimes. En avril 2018, après 10 ans de négociations, l’Organisation maritime internationale (OMI), qui réglemente la navigation en haute mer, avait présenté un plan visant à abattre de 50% les émissions du secteur entre 2008 et 2050. La limitation de la vitesse des navires était sérieusement envisagée pour atteindre cet objectif.


Mardi 30 avril, les dirigeants de 107 des plus importantes compagnies de transport maritime ont signé une lettre ouverte, dans laquelle ils s’accordent à dire que «s’attaquer efficacement au changement climatique est peut-être le plus grand défi de notre époque». Et de poursuivre: «En tant que première étape, nous exprimons notre ferme soutien à l’OMI pour mettre en œuvre une réglementation obligatoire des vitesses globales des navires différenciée selon le type, la taille et la catégorie des navires.»

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IMO accelerates to reduce speed of ships

107 leaders of shipping companies have spoken in favor of limiting the speed of ships to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

An important episode was played in the long series on the reduction of CO2 emissions from shipping. In April 2018, after 10 years of negotiations, the International Maritime Organization (IMO), which regulates navigation on the high seas, presented a plan to reduce the sector’s emissions by 50% between 2008 and 2050. The speed of vessels was seriously considered to achieve this goal.


On Tuesday, April 30, the leaders of 107 of the largest shipping companies signed an open letter in which they agree that « effectively addressing climate change is perhaps the greatest challenge of our time » . And to continue: « As a first step, we express our strong support to the IMO to implement mandatory regulation of overall vessel speeds differentiated by type, size and category of vessels. »

Le transport maritime est responsable de 3% des émissions anthropiques annuelles.